Prepared by Adam Baddeley
The numbers and variety of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the hands of Armies, Navies and Air Forces in the Asia-Pacific as well as new prototypes and maturing designs created by the region’s industries over the past twelve months has expanded again. As before, the majority of activity is focused on a few countries: Australia, China, India, South Korea, Singapore and to a degree Pakistan although with recent purchases and deals, like those inked by Indonesia and Vietnam, new capabilities and know-how is now increasingly being injected into the second
tier of UAV adopters in the region. The UAV Directory has been researched using a range of resources notably AMR correspondents, industry experts and serving military personnel throughout the region as well as open sources.
Heron I, IAI; Project Nankeen lease via MacDonald Dettwiler extended to end 2012, supporting three-platform Army and RAAF Unit from Kandahar which began in January 2010, flew 4000 hours in first year of operations.
Scan Eagle, Isitu/Boeing; Interim Tier 2 type requirement until Shadow 200 fielded. Deployed Iraq 2006-8 and in Afghanistan since 2007. In Afghanistan they have flown 32000 hours on 6,200 missions, or an average of 22 hours a day for nearly five years
RQ-7B Shadow 200, AAI; Selected under JP129 Phase 2 and requested from US DCSA in May 2011. Deployed to Afghanistan in May 2012.
Skylark I, Elbit Systems; Eight systems ordered in Nov. 2005 onwards with 20 STA Reg. deployed to E Timor and Iraq, further orders subsequently.
Aerosonde III, AAI; Solomons in 2003 four Aerosondes sent to the Solomon Islands on Operation Anode with Army’s 131 STA Battery.
Avatar, Condarra; 18 UAVs acquired since 2001 deployed to E. Timor with ADF SF in 2003, status unknown.
TRIALS AND DEVELOPMENT
Maritime Ranges Sensor Delivery System,
Mincham Aviation; Able to deploy sonobuoys 15nm in trials with RAN as of late 2010.
Heron 1, IAI; Six week, A$5.5m trial with Border Protection Command May-June 2008 with 80 hours flying in maritime surveillance trial equipped with ELTA 2022 multimode radar.
Aqua Puma, AeroVironment; Naval trials in
Patriot GQ-90, Guardian Aerospace Systems; MALE 20 hour endurance, 20Kg payload, focus on RAN as customer, completed flight test programme.
RQ-8A Fire Scout, Northrop Grumman; Company believes it has interest.
RQ-4 Global Hawk, Northrop Grumman; Flew non-stop to Australia in 2001 and took past in joint exercise Tandem Thrust. Planned to acquire the UAV as part of its participation in BAMS project but dropped out in 2009 although options remain for maritime and littoral surveillance from 2016. MQ-4C again being pushed by Northrop Grumman.
_ NOTES: Australia may upgrade airfield in Cocos Island in Indian Ocean to host US RQ- 4 Global Hawk with an estimated $80-$110 million cost. Fauntrackway is to supply new Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Aircraft Landing Mat (ALM) from the Australian armed forces. AeroVironment has acquired exclusive global distribution rights for
Australian firm’s Sentient Kestrel Land MTI Tier I automated target detection software for use with small UAVs. The Royal Australian Navy is to conduct trials with the ScanEagle, Aerosonde and Camcopter UAVs on an ANZAC class frigate in Sept. and Nov. and on the HMAS Choules in early 2013.
BZK-005, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics; MALE UAV thought to have been in limited service since 2009 with a 40 hr endurance.
Pterodactyl 1/Yilong, AVIC; Predator-like MALE with 400km range first seen in 2008 with initial development completed in 2009 and production beginning during 2010 and can be equipped with AR-1 missiles.
W-30/W-50 series, NRIST; Sometimes called PW-1 and entered service with the People’s Liberation Army during 2005, radius of 100km. Later PW-2 version has longer range.
ASN206/7, Xian ASN Technology; In service with PLA.
RMAX, Yamaha Motor Company; Nine systems procured in 2001 for paramilitary use
ASN-15, Xian ASN Technology; Hand launched UAV in 2000 largely used for test and proof of concept
ASN-104/5B, Xian ASN Technology; In service with PLA.
ASN-206/207, Xian ASN Technology; Developed from mid 1990, limited service, range of 150km, ASN-207 first seen publicly in 2002.
ASN-209, Xian ASN Technologies; Twinboom pusher design called Silver Eagle in PLAN service, reported to be tested by PLA as comms relay in June 2011.
I-Z, Z-3, Z-2, NRIST; rotary wing design some military and paramilitary use from early 2000s.
Harpy, IAI; Sold to China in 1994, When China returned the Harpy for maintenance, US concerns over possibility of upgrade to Harop standard, saw Israel return the UAV in 2005.
WJ-600, CASIC; 130Kg MALE design for maritime surveillance, turbo-jet powered, options for air to surface engagement, in early development, 3hr endurance WJ-600A has 5 hr endurance, a number delivered in PLAAF.
_ TRIALS AND DEVELOPMENT
CH-3, CASIC; MALE 12 hr endurance, canard design 108nm radius in advanced development, first seen in public in 2008, reported to be fitted with FT-5 small PGMs.
Long Haul Eagle, AVIC; Another Global Hawk like design, status unknown.
Soaring Dragon, Xianglong; Global Hawk class, reported range of 7000km.
ASN-213, Xian ASN Technology; 5Kg design with in-flight morphing design first seen in 2008.
Night Eagle, AVIC; Hand launched, similar to Aerosonde design.
Whirlwind Scout, AVIC; Compact VTOL ducted fan design.
U8E, AVIC; Lightweight VTOL design shown as Singapore Airshow 2010.
SL-200, CASC; Armed HALE, described as a stealthy design.
CH-802, Poly Technologies Inc; Hand launched similar to Pointer, 3m wingspan, 2kg payload, endurance 3hours. V750, Qingdao Haili Helicopter
Manufacturing Co; Rotary wing UAV.
Tian Yi-3, LOEC; High speed HALE.
Warrior Eagle, AVIC; Only sketches see publicly and may utilise a morphing wing design.
Soarhawk, Sunward; Described as similar to piston engined ADCOM SAT-400, status unknown.
DUF-2, BUAA; Hand launched SUAV.
Wing Long, AVIC; Completed flight testing in Oct 2008, 20 hour endurance and a range of 400km.
Anjian/Darksword, Shenyang Aircraft Co; UCAV in early development.
BL-60, BVE; K-MAX like rotary design. SVU200, Sunward Tech Star-Lite; First flight of rotary wing platform in 2012, planned endurance of 2+hrs.
Daofeng/Blade SF-460, CASIC; Prototype, 3 hr endurance, first seen Zuhai 2010.
Daofeng 300, CASIC, 31kg weight, operates civil SLR camera, endurance of 3+hrs.
Blue Eage 200W, Keyuan; MALE, eundurance of 12 hours speed of 160kmph, equipped with air to ground munitions on six external hard points.
T-120, Hubei Taihang Xinghe Aircraft
Manufacturing; Reconaissance UAV with
spped of up to Mach 1.5.
T-100, Hubei Taihang Xinghe Aircraft Manufacturing; Electrically powered SUAV.
TF-1C, Shenyang Aerospace; 1200km range endurance of 12 hours.
TF-5, Shenyang Aerospace; 13kg SUAV single CCD camera.
TF-8, Shenyang Aerospace, Hand launched platoon level, 4.7Kg SUAV.
Z-5, PLA Research Institute; Shown publicly in Sept. 2011 rotary wing design.
_ NOTES: China’s aerospace industry continues to produces dozens of new UAV designs for evaluation although few are currently reaching service although recent developments suggest a move away from imported engines to indigenous designs. Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force released pictures of what appear to be four examples of the Scheibel Camcopter design operating from Type 054A missile frigates, either on deck on in flight.
Searcher I & II, IAI; India’s Army and Navy are understood to have acquired 18 and possibly as many as 50-70 UAVs.
Lakshya, DRDO/ADE & HAL; High speed reusable drone with 100 now in service. Israel pulled out of Lakshya buy in 2005.
Heron I/II, IAI; IAF/IN order in 2002 for four UAVs. Navy ordered 12 in 2005 and operates the UAVs in mixed units alongside its Searcher UAVs. Potential requirement for 50 UAVs
Harpy, IAI; 30 in service delivered from
Harop/Harpy II, IAI; 10 UAV/Loitering Munition ordered by IAF in 2009 in $100m deal with video datalink system. Deliveries started in 2011.
_ TRIALS AND DEVELOPMENT
Rustom 1, DRDO/ARDE; First successful test flight in Oct. 2010 after prototype crashed in Nov. 2009, 12-15 hr endurance, airframe built by Zephyr Aerospace. A fifth, 25 minute flight took place in Nov. 2011 attaining a speed of 100Kmph.
Rustom HALE, DRDO/ADE; MALE UAV in development for tri-service customers, also precursor for UCAV development prototype in 2014-15, 12-15 hour endurance and 45kg payload.
Netra SUAV, ARDE/Ideaforge Technology; 1.5m Quadrotor SUAV, altitude 200m, 30 min endurance. Nishant, DRDO/ADE; Development began in 1990 trial completed in Feb. 2011. 12 Nishants ordered in 2005 with four delivered so far and two crashing in April 2010. The balance due in 2013-14.
Kapothaka, DRDO/ADE; Mini-UAV to test ISR as well as launch and recovery concepts Pawan, DRDO/ADE; SUAV in development.
Gagan, DRDO/ADE; TUAV in development. Global Hawk, Northrop Grumman; Listed India as a potential customer at Paris Air show 2011 in maritime and overland role UCAV, N/A; IAF issued RFI in mid 2010. RQ-16B T-Hawk, Honeywell Aerospace; Demonstrated at the Counter Terrorism and Jungle Warfare College at Kanker in Chattisgarh in 2010.
‘HALE’ UAV, N/A; IN HALE RFI issued October 2010. NG reported to have responded with its MQ-4C BAMS which could operate with P-8I Poseidon.
TERP 2, MKU; hand launched pusher SUAV, 90 min endurance, 10X optical zoom day camera and Uncooled IR camera range 10km.
Cheetak-based UAV, IAI/HAL; discussions to produce an unmanned version of the stalwart helo.
Skylark, Elbit/BEL; Indianised example on show at DEFEXPO 2012.
Lakshya-II, DRDO; Tenth test flight of target drone in January for 30 mins, operating from 12-800m.
_ NOTES: In June India announced plans to acquire 95, 2.5Kg SUAV split between the Army (60) and Navy (35) with the competition beginning in early 2013. In April, India’s Navy announced the inauguration of the INAS 344 Squ. “Spirited Shadower,” tasked with maritime patrol equipped with two IAI Searcher IIs and two Herons and based in Tamil Nadu from where it will operate in the Palk Strait, Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay under Eastern Naval
Command. Two similarly equipped units INAS 343 Squ. at Probander and the INAS 342 Squ. at Kochi. A fourth unit is planned for the Andaman islands.
Searcher Mk II, IAI; fielding in 2012, delayed and originally ordered in 2006 from Kital Philippines Corp.
Fox AT1, CAC/EADS; Four UAVs with a fixed wing design fielded with Armed Forces Strategic Intelligence Agency and Air Force in Bandung in early 2000s. Contract valued at $10m and issues over non-delivery of rotary wing UAVs. UAVs withdrawn from service in 2006
SS-5, PT Wesco Aerospace; one or more systems reported to be deployed to Aceh in 2005.
Aerosonde, AAI; Deployed with paramilitary and Police forces.
_ TRIALS AND DEVELOPMENT BBPT-04C Sriti, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology; 10km range tactical UAV using a flying wing design. ALAP, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology; 25kg, 50km range UAV.
‘TUAV’, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology; 120kg UAV with a range of 120km. Three design shape prototypes; the BPPT-01A “Wulung” with Hi rectangular-wing, Low Boom T-tail, the BPPT-01B “Gagak” with Lo rectangularwing, Low Boom V-Tail and the BPPT-02A “Wulung” with a Hi rectangular-wing, Hi Boom Inverted V-Tail design.
_ NOTES: Pesawat Udara Nir-Awak or PUNA is the Bahasa Indonesia acronym for UAV. Indonesia has been carrying out a programme headed by the government’s Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology to develop indigenous UAVs since March 2007. Military announced TUAV programme in Oct. 2009 to be acquired “from 2011” with the UAVs themselves to be manufactured locally by PT Dirgantara.
Forward Flying Observation System, Fuji Heavy Industries; Development of rotary wing design began in 1991 with three systems equipping Army artillery units from 2004. Civil version is the RPH-2. RMAX, Yamaha Motor Company; Deployed with Japan’s Iraq contingent in 2005. B Type Machine II, Fuji Imvac; Deployed over Fukushima.
ScanEagle, Insitu; Two systems on order.
TAyoutoK(C)Ogata Mujinki (TACOM), Fuji Heavy Industries; Trans. ‘Multi-role small UAV’. Japan’s Technical Research and Development Institute have been working on the concept since 1995. Evaluation flight test in 2001. In 2011 Japan released film of two turbo jet powered drones carried by an F-15J. TACOM launched while aloft and
returns to base using a retractable undercarriage. A prototype launched from a Mitsubishi/Lockheed Martin F-2 was lost at sea in 2010.
J/AQM-1, Fuji Heavy Industries; Air force target drone, entered services 1987, indigenous design.
BQM-34AJ, Fuji Heavy Industries; Navy target drone, licensed development of Firebee.
_ TRIALS AND DEVELOPMENT
RQ-8A Fire Scout, Northrop Grumman; Company believes it has interest from the military.
B Type Machine II, Fuji IMVAC, Used to monitor Fukushima.
Ball Shaped UAV; Development or SUAV for Urban ops for Army.
RQ-16B T-Hawk, Honeywell Aerospace; Used to monitor Fukushima.
Global Hawk, Northrop Grumman; listed Japan as a potential customer at Paris Airshow 2011 in maritime and overland role. Thought to be as part of 2011-2015 Mid-Term Defence Programme with three of the UAVs potentially required probably working in conjunction with P-3C Orion. Japanese interests first noted in 2004. Improved Satellite surveillance the main alternative.
_ NOTES: Japan seems far behind others in regards to UAVs. There are however a large number of UAV companies in Japan including Fuji Heavy Industries, Yamaha Motor, Yanmar Agricultural Equipment, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Sky Remote, Hirobo, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Hitachi, NEC Corporation, GH Craft, Fuji Imvac and Nippi Corporation.
Pchela, Yakovlev OKB; Unconfirmed reports that North Korea acquired the Russian UAV in 1995.
_ NOTES: Also reports that it operates Tupolev DR-3/M-141 jet-powered tactical reconnaissance UAVs.
Harpy, IAI; 100 systems valued at $45m fielded from 1999.
RQ-101 Night Intruder 300, KAI; Began development in 1991 with Ministry funding with the Army receiving five systems 2001- 2004 for Corps level operation, Navy also acquired the system.
Shadow 400, AAI; One system in service with Navy for evaluation from 2006.
Skylark II, Elbit Systems; Announced selection in Dec 2007, equipped with the Micro-CoMPASS E/O payload with first delivery in 2008.
_ TRIALS AND DEVELOPMENT
KUS-11 TUAV, KAI; Division level solution, awarded development contract in Sept. 2010, delivery in 2015.
KUS-9, Korean Air, KAI; Development completed in 2009, work on project now ended Devil Killer, KAI; Miniature UAV weighs 25Kg, durance 8 hrs.
KUS-15, Korean Air; V-tail MALE design, mock up shown at Seoul 2011. Night Intruder NI-11N, KAI; Development began in 2006 with focus on maritime surveillance.
Korean – Combat Unmanned Vehicle, KAI; K-CUAV model at Seoul 2011.
KUS-X, Korean Air; Turbo-jet Delta design wing space 4.5m length 3.5m.
Urban Star, Kyung An Cable Company; VTOL UAV in development.
Remoeye-002A, Ucon Systems; 1.5m wingspan, range 10km endurance 1 hr. CCD TV or IR with single axis scanning.
Remoeye-006, Ucon Systems; pylon mounted high wing design, 6.8kg, 2.59m wingspan, 2 hr. endurance.
Remoeye-015, Ucon Systems; Development complete in June 2005, 15Kg TUAV endurance 4hrs plus range 40km, CCD TV or IR camera paylaod.
Remo H-120, Ucon Systems; In development, 340CC engine rotary wing design endurance of two hours and rnage of 50km.
RQ-8A Fire Scout, Northrop Grumman; Company believes it has interest.
RQ-4 Global Hawk Block 30, Northrop Grumman; Korea allocating $40m for partial payment in 2011 budget for four aircraft for delivery in 2015-16 but since canceled plans. Northrop Grumman had partnered with DACC Aerospace, Foosung, KJF and Korean Air.
Smart UAV, KARI and Ministry of Knowledge Economy; Tilt rotor design launched in 2002 with significant government funding, unveiled in 2005 was to begin flight testing in 2011, at 500Kmph aircraft described as the world’s fastest UAV, altitude of 20,000ft and operational radius of 200km. FMAV, Korea Agency for Defense Development, Hanwha and USAFRL, Flapping Wing MAV, weigh 200g, endurance 25 minutes.
_ NOTES: In January Noh Dae-lae, head of South Korea’s Defense Acquisition Program Administration has said in Feb. that plans to acquire Global Hawk have been canceled following a price hike from $442m in 2009 to $899m in November 2011. Korea now plans to open a new competition. Collapse of deal has led to AeroVironment Global Obsever and Boeing’s Phantom Eye being publicly cited as candidates with Israeli competition also expected notably the Heron TP.
Eagle 150B, CTRM; Conversion of CTRM’s Eagle 150 trainer aircraft into an aircraft which could function either as manned aircraft or a UAV, three aircraft and a GCS entered service in 2002 and withdrawn in Feb 2006.
Aludra Mk1, CTRM; Trials from October 2008 to late 2010.
Aludra Mk2, CTRM; Mk2 version leased by Malayisan Armed forces since 2008 who will continue to operate two from Semporna in East Malaysia.
Yabhon Aludra, CTRM/Adcom; co-development with UAE firm, 500Kg MALE design with endurance of 30 hours. Two aircraft to be leased for counter-terrorism surveillance via CTRM.
ScanEagle, Insitu Pacific; leased by CTRM to Malaysian Armed Forces.
_ TRIALS AND DEVELOPMENT
Cyber Eye, Sapura; demonstrated to Malaysian Military, sales to Thailand, Australia and Europe.
Cyber Shark, Sapura; demonstrated to Malaysian Military.
Cyber Hawk, Sapura; 20Kg with 6 hr endurance.
Cyber Quad, Sapura; two sizes, linked to SAKTI soldier programme.
S-100, Schiebel; Camcopter was the only UAV taking part in LIMA 2011 flight displays.
_ NOTES: New leased UAVs due to be operational in Summer.